In memory of the hero Abdul Khaliq Hazara, The Martyr

      Like a demon rising from the bog swamp, Nadir Khan rose and cast a hellish pall over Afghanistan.  It is well-known today that Nadir Khan invited Kalakani, the then ruler, to join him in Kabul so that they could discuss the political upheavals and had signed an oath on the Qur’an so that Kalakani would believe he was safe.  Unbeknownst to Kalakani that Nadir Khan would sell even his religion to get to power, the Tajik ruler accompanied the religious envoy sent by Nadir Khan to Kabul.  Once there, he was brutally shot and then hanged.  Nadir Khan’s trail of evil grew worse from then on.

When Nadir Shah seized political power, the first thing he did was execute all the famous or influential people of Afghanistan who were pro Amanullah Khan.  He had them executed indiscriminately.  From the Charkhi family alone, he had 18 members executed, including Ghulam Nabi Khan and Ghulam Jelani Khan, because of political differences.  Their brother Ghulam Sediq Khan was out of the country during this time and so his life was unknowingly spared.  Other people who were fortunate enough to escape the hand of Nadir Shah were Ghulam Jelani’s wife, Shah Bibi, and his daughters, Razia and Rabia.  Everyone else was executed.

He would not tolerate any support or loyalty anyone had towards Amanullah Khan, regardless of who they were or their standings in the society.  When Nadir Shah or one of his criminal stooges from his mercenary army saw even a wall which had so much as the name of Amanullah Khan written on it, they turn their cannons loose and destroy it.  Even books were not spared.  Book stores and libraries were torn down just for containing material that had Amanullah Khan’s picture or name.  Such was the hatred and insecurity Nadir Khan felt towards Amanullah Khan. 

      While he went about executing all the supporters of the former ruler, at the same time he commenced looting the whole North of Afghanistan because the region was primarily Tajik.  Some of the tribes that committed the atrocious acts for Nadir Khan were the Zazai, Mangal, Mohmand, with many more.  With these clans, he attacked the Northern areas, terrorizing the Tajik homelands.  They kidnapped female members of families, pillaged houses and then burned them down once they stripped everything of value from it, killed anyone who got in their way no matter who it was.  They stole people’s valuables to budget Nadir Khan’s campaign.

The money was then put to waste.  From the country’s treasury, Nadir Khan paid large sums of money to have people rewrite the current events so that he would go down in history the way he wanted to and kept the truth from printed paper.  He had every pro-Amanullah Khan literature destroyed and replaced with his own propaganda i.e. literature and writings that praised him and his family.  Chaos and destruction laid on everyone’s doorstep and not a word of it was to be recorded.

      Nadir Khan is easily the worst despotic ruler.  He was a tyrant, oppressive, and along the likes of Abdul Rahman Khan.  Like Abdul Rahman, Nadir Khan had a burning hatred for the Hazara and Shia community of the country.  It was as if he was the inheritor of Abdul Rahman’s legacy of hated and he took it upon himself to continue the former tyrant’s system of massive execution and oppression of Hazaras.  And later on, Nadir Khan’s younger brother, Sardar Hashim, proved to be even worse than Abdul Rahman.  
      Nadir Khan and his Mahsibeen family, who were the former servants of Amanullah Khan, not only betrayed their former boss but they went beyond what was necessary to prove their disloyalty towards him by massacring anyone who spoke even a good word about Amanullah Khan.  They had their spies infiltrate into the masses to find such support so that they could extinguish any threat of uprisings.  Amanullah Khan had massive support among the Hazara people, which is one of the reasons why Nadir Khan hated the Hazaras so much.  Because of this support, Nadir Khan used the most brutal methods to oppress and kill the Hazaras.  Several generations of Hazara people endured the torturous reign of Nadir Khan; it still lives in their memories.  The younger generation who were lucky to have survived told their narratives and stories of barbaric acts they witnessed against their own people.        
      For years the Hazaras were enslaved and lost their very livelihood.  They were forced to abandon their homes and went into the mountains to seek refugee.  Those who stayed behind in their villages and towns said they felt the oppression descend heavily over their town like a shadow.  They knew there were spies of Nadir Khan around them but were not able to tell who they were.  Their river ran thick with blood instead of water, the very air they breathed felt contaminated with obvious hatred, they lived with fear, not knowing which day would be their last.  This misery had befallen their community for a long time and the Hazaras knew no other life but that of suffering.
      The former ruler, Amanullah Khan, was a secular open-minded king.  He advocated reforms and modernization of the country, and he was a friend to the Hazaras.  Through his presidential decree, he banned the slavery of Hazaras.  This was a huge relief and great moment in history for the Hazaras who have suffered under the tyrannical hand of former rulers i.e. Abdul Rahman.  However, this celebratory abolishment was short-lived.  In the time of Nadir Khan and of his brother Sardar Hashim Khan who succeeded him, all the social injustices returned.  Once again, it was a dark time for the Hazaras but this time it seemed like Nadir Khan was taking out a personal vendetta against the Hazara people.  Aside for punishing them for supporting Amanullah Khan, it was as if he wanted to punish them for even existing in the first place.  The Hazaras’ suffering grew tenfold for every minute moment of happiness they might have known in the past.  They had no political representation and therefore their pleas and protests fell on deaf ears. 
Who was there to witness the terrorization of the Hazaras?  Nadir Khan and his family of marauders threw innocent Hazaras down wells, kept them in cages, and left them to rot in jail.  Even non-Hazara politicians who tried to bring about even a small change or show a hint of support towards the Hazaras were not spared.  It was a dark time for social justice indeed.  For a little over a century, the Hazaras have been treated in the most inhumane way possible; oppressed by the likes of Abdul Rahman to the fascistic government of Nadir Khan, Zahir Khan, Daoud and Hashim Khan.  They were condemned racially and religiously with no chance of defending themselves.  The governmental policy towards the Hazaras was to kill the male family members, keep their women as slaves, and torture the children until they cursed the name of Hazara.    
      The policy was aimed at destroying the whole social structure of the Hazaras by reeking havoc on their life, driving them out of their ancestral land, and deny them of their identity. These polices were so sever and harsh that it made the Hazaras seem like criminals.  It came to be that it was a curse to be a Hazara; the very name ‘Hazara’ was equivalent of a social curse.  This fed into the minds of the people and had the other ethnic groups as well as some Hazaras look down upon the group as a whole.  Hazaras were ashamed of themselves for reasons unknown to themselves.  They thought something was wrong with them but could not figure out what it was that made them despicable and so they blamed themselves.  They were victims of abuse, psychologically traumatized and forever stigmatized.  They were collectively seen and treated like second-class citizens.  Later on, in the time of Hashim Khan’s premiership, a decree was issued which banned the children of Hazaras from attending higher educational institutions, and military and police academies. They were also denied scholarship funds, employment oppurtunities in the foreign ministry, intelligence agency, and governmental institution.  These tyrant rulers literally kept one quarter of the country’s population oppressed and denied them the rights any human being is free to have. They had no qualms in advertising their prejudices against the Hazaras.             
      During Nadir Khan’s time, the brutal treatment of the Hazaras was at its peak.  Nadir and his brothers and their mercenary clans were cutting the heads of people who were struggling and fighting for social justice and equal representation. They would openly cane them on the streets and throw boiling oil on their heads to have them serve as examples to everyone else.  They made “human vests” out of innocent people, a horrendous act of cutting the heads and arms of people; they pulled their nails out as a form of torture; held public hangings, etc.  All of this was the norm of the day during Nadir Khan’s reign.  In this Market of Blood, the blood-sucking spies and traitors were profiting from the death and torture of Hazaras and Hazara supporters; there were monetary rewards as well as prestigious titles and posts to be awarded for anyone who aided Nadir Khan in his path of destruction.

With the consultation of the British, Nadir Khan likened to a madman, holding a sword and blindly and indiscriminately cutting people’s heads off in various communities.  He didn’t care who came in contact with the sword as he swung it in various directions – be it a woman, little child, old man, an intellectual or a day laborer as long as it was a Hazara.  He did as much damage as he could; he poisoned their water wells, looted from them, and basically changed their homeland to a massive grave yard.

The history of Afghanistan lies in the reality of these brutal and tyrannical rulers who emerged from the tribal society.  History was made by these bloody tyrants of tribal people who never hesitated to eliminate those who were different from them.  The barbaric rulers would shut the voices of the people to keep them from crying out against the injustices that were inflicted on them; as British mercenaries they used religion – and anything else they could get their hands on – as a tool to manipulate the masses and gain control.  This is how they created history.  

      Remembering all the injustices and sorrowful events that have taken place in Afghanistan, it is quite clear what is lacking: social justice, democracy, equal representation.  The only way to save a society or a nation is to have these vital things.  But Afghanistan has always had a problem with a small minority who has always called the region their own homeland.  The tribal people have figured that the only way for them to survive is to abolish social equality and justice for the rest of the ethnic groups.  Thus, they have gained political power through manipulation and have been used and abused by other foreign powers for their own agenda and benefit.  Their main goal has always been to massacre and oppress others.  However, it is important now more than ever for Afghanistan to establish democracy, social justice, and equal representation.  If they are not set up, it will then just prolong the suffering and prolong the miserable state that the people are in.  The Pashtuns have always claimed that they are the rightful rulers and guardians of the country.  And if they continue to think like that, then there will be no remedy for the country and the hatred born of this injustice will always be there.    
Abdul Khaliq, the martyred hero, had fought against tyranny and
oppression.  His goal was to bring about social justice and equality, especially for his people.  He sacrificed his life for such a noble cause.  This brave hero and son of the proud Hazara nation had felt the injustice with his very flesh and bone.  At a young age, he understood the brutalities and oppressions that had befallen on his country, on his people as well as the non-Hazaras.  The top head of the pyramid of this oppressive regime had to be eliminated and so he took the mission upon himself, to sacrifice himself in order to save the whole nation, particularly the hopeless Hazaras.  He made a silent promise and was determined to carry out his plans, knowing that there could only be one answer, one conclusion, to such a reign as Nadir Khan’s. 
      Afghanistan had to be purged of such a cruel and barbaric person as this Nadir Khan, who never tired of sending out his prejudiced and hate-filled decrees and new ways of torturing and killing Hazaras.  Abdul Khaliq refused the idea that he was the one born guilty, as was the mentality of most Hazaras because of the laws of Nadir Khan.  He knew it was the ruler himself who was not only born guilty but was, in fact, digging his own grave.  Khaliq knew that by eliminating the tyrant he would go down in history and be remembered by such a noble cause.  No matter how young he died, he knew that his name would at least live eternally.  And yes, the people of the world and of the region, especially the Hazaras and non-Hazaras, have realized that indeed, young Abdul Khaliq had taken a noble mission as his own personal duty.  This has become even more evident in the past few decades as people realized just how big of a despot Nadir Khan really was.  In the beginning, the news and media were all manipulated by Nadir Khan’s family but now that people are less afraid to report and write the truth, the shadow of lies have slowly been pushed aside, revealing the facts and reality.  In the last few decades, people have been writing the no-longer censored truth and Abdul Khaliq changed from a “John Wilkes Booth” to a shining star for those who suffered for too long under tyrants, he became to be known as a symbol of freedom, equality, and justice.  
      The dark times led Abdul Khaliq to his life’s mission.  The monarchs and their mercenary family openly admitted to terrorizing groups of people in order to keep their precious crowns and their position of power.  They kept the masses in the dark, kept them from being educated so that hardly anyone would be able to tell what was right and what was wrong.  It’s been recorded that Abdul Rahman Khan has committed genocide against the Hazara, eradicated 62% of their population.  Those who lived were forcefully removed from their ancestry lands of Urzogan, Zabul, and Kandahar.      
      Abdul Khaliq’s family was among those that were forcefully removed.  His grandfather was from Daya, Folad and for a short time they were settled in Dahzangi and Ghazni.  During Abdul Rahman’s time, Abdul Khaliq’s grandfather was forced to run away with his family in order to save their lives.  Their positions, money, and any valuables along with their land were taken away by Amir Rahman Khan.  Their lands were to be given to kuchi nomads who were moved in from Indian or other areas.  Abdul Rahman’s grandfather had no other choice but to helplessly watch half of his family be executed; those that couldn’t escape were murdered to make sure they would never come back.  Abdul Khaliq’s grandfather was survived by two sons by the name of Mawladad –Abdul Khaliq’s father – and Khodadad.  Both of them found work with the family of Charkhi.  Mawladad worked for Ghulam Sediq while Khodadad worked for Ghulam Jelani.  Later on, when Abdul Khaliq was old enough to work, he worked alongside his uncle for Ghulam Jelani. 
      Mawladad, Khaliq’s father, was a very educated man.  He was self-taught and read whenever he could get the chance.  He would often accompany Ghulam Sediq on short business trips to Europe and learned how to fluently speak German, English, and Russian.  He was also very politically opinionated, well aware of everything that was happening around them.  Abdul Khaliq and his family came under the influence of movements for social justice and democracy.  Abdul Khaliq was especially moved by these ideas and at a younger age was influenced by the movements.  He witnessed the struggle for freedom and social justice and willfully became a partner and follower himself to fight against the tyranny of the puppet region of the British.     
      Abdul Khaliq was born in 1916 and his father, Mawladad, had a special hand in his upbringing from the start.  He showed special attention to his young son and was very much involved in Khaliq’s life.  When his son was old enough, Mawladad applied and got Abdul Khaliq admitted to Lycee Nejat.  Abdul Khaliq developed a special relationship with the members of the Charkhi family and was especially close with Shah Bibi Khanum, the wife of Ghulam Jelani, whom he highly respected and considered to be like his own mother.   
      Abdul Khaliq was a very serious young man from the start.  He was emotional and hot-headed and people always said he had the characteristics of a real man even at a young age.  Determination resonated from his very being; he was a decent and honest man, always kept his word and was punctual, was handsome and athletic, particularly fond of gymnastics and soccer.  All his life he was surrounded with politically-motivated figures and was aware of their stance and of the situations around him.  It wasn’t unusual that he himself became revolutionary; after all, he did not have a normal childhood, one of carefree days and equal footings.  The special attention his father bestowed on him by keeping him educated and informed made it seem as if Abdul Khaliq had accomplished ‘the destination of one hundred years of travel in one night,’ thus giving him the experiences and knowledge of a much older person.  He was changed to a fighter, not scared of anything and was able to fight against tyranny.
Martyr Khaliq became a member of the secret organizations and the young revolutionary Hazara wanted to show he was fully committed to them.  He wanted to prove that he was capable to perform any mission and he made contacts with people anywhere that he could.  The Charkhi family was a very political family and they admired his willingness.  In his school, Lycee Nejat, several of the teachers were politically motivated as well and they helped Khaliq establish contacts.  One of his teachers, Mohammed Azim Khan, and the Vice Principal, Mohammed Ayub Khan, would often discuss such politicized issues and Khaliq grew more aware from these people.  He constantly thought about the future of his country and of ways he could help.     
      Khaliq of the Hazaras was the son of a disadvantaged society, who were denied basic rights.  He would gaze upon his vast underprivileged people, the inheritors of suffering.  Just as how a blacksmith shapes steel by first placing it in a fiery furnace, Khaliq was shaped the same way.  He endured the fiery furnace of poverty, of unbearable and unfair disadvantages of his kind and was thus shaped into a man of steel; nothing could hurt him after what he had witnessed first hand.  In this continuous struggle of his people, he became the torchbearer and knew he had to do something about the injustices that had wrongly befallen his people.

He came to understand what his sole mission in life was and knew he would be the one to accomplish it.  And so he looked for every opportunity to carry out his task.  One day, in Kabul, parts of a fortress were to be rebuilt and Nadir Khan was placing the first foundation stone as a ceremonial gesture towards the reconstruction.  Abdul Khaliq attended the function with plans of executing his mission there but other circumstances arose and he was not successful and so, he had to wait for another day.  Abdul Khaliq then had hopes of performing his duty during the month of Sunbolah, on the anniversary of when Nadir Khan overthrew Kalakani’s government and taken over power.  But again, circumstances arose that kept Khaliq from accomplishing his task.  Then, Khaliq was given a chance on November 8th, 1933.  On this day, Nadir Khan was planned to attend the final examinations of Lycee Nejat as well as act as a judge on the Fall sport tournaments.  He was scheduled to go to different classes and observe while the students took their final exams.

One of the classes he attended was Abdul Khaliq’s.  Nadir Khan walked through each row, glancing around him without a care and reached the row where Khaliq was standing.  He took that first auspicious step and his fate was sealed.  As Nadir Khan took a few more steps into the row, Khaliq stepped out of his place and came forward to meet Nadir Khan in a calm and relaxed manner.  His gun rose as call to battle and Khaliq pulled the trigger and fired a bullet aimed at the tyrant in front of him.  Before anyone could react, he pulled the trigger again and once again and Nadir Khan’s body shook with each hit before dropping to the floor, motionless once and for all.  Abdul Khaliq had finally accomplished his task, killing one of the worse tyrants in history, the puppet of the British, an evil and unprincipled man who had betrayal running through his veins. 

      Abdul Khaliq was neither ashamed nor scared of his actions.  He did not run away to hide or to escape; he was a man and wanted to face the circumstances.  It did not take long for Nadir’s henchmen to give the news to Nadir’s brothers.  All the freedom-loving people and those against the tyranny and injustice had cause to celebrate; they said they would always remember this day as the victory of righteousness over evil.  Abdul Khaliq surpassed even placing the “bell around the cat’s neck” and went straight to eliminating the cat altogether. 
      However, even in death, Nadir managed to spread injustice like a toxin spilling over.  Nadir Khan’s brothers and clan wanted to kill every single student in the school for what had happened to the ruler.  The rest of the governmental officials intervened and consulted with them and convinced Shah Mahmood, Nadir Khan’s brother, that the killer and the supposed accomplices were arrested and that the other 2,000 students had nothing to do with it.     
      In the afternoon of December 19, 1933, when it was so cold that even a stone would crack, injustice was administered once more upon Khaliq and his people.  Not only was Khaliq arrested but several innocent people were taken as well: Mahmud Khan, his teacher; Mawladad his father; Khodadad his uncle; Qurban Ali, the cold water seller; his mother’s brother Rabbani; Mustafa and Latif, the youngsters of the Charkhi family; Ali Akbar Meshir; Mahmud, the employee of Anis Press; Students Mir Masjidid, Mohammed Zaman, Mohammed Aziz, Mohammed Eshaq; Mohammed Ayub, the Vice Principal of Lycee Nejat a.k.a Amani High School; Mohammed Azmeem, a teacher.  Aside from them, 21 of Abdul Khaliq’s family members, friends and acquaintances including two of his uncle’s little children Abdullah, 9, and Abdul Rahman, 11, were taken as well.  They were all taken towards the southern gate of Ark to be shot and then hanged.  There was no trial, no chance to defend oneself, nothing.  17-year old Khaliq was condemned to be martyred.  Many others were imprisoned for no stated reason, like Hafiza, Khaliq’s 9 year old sister, who ended up dying in prison because of mistreatment.    
      Abdul Khaliq was tortured before he was killed.  Though the human body could only take so much, Khaliq showed incredible endurance.  His animalistic punishers dried to demanded to know who his accomplices were and who the mastermind behind his mission was.  They wanted him to name names and would not relent the severe punishment until he spoke.  But all Khaliq would say was that he took full responsibility and that only he should be punished and no one else.  It fell on deaf ears, however. 
One of his friends, Mohammed Eshaq, was tortured so much, he could not control his emotions and anger any longer.  While screaming and moaning in pain, he yelled at Abdul Khaliq, saying “What kind of damn friend were you? Why didn’t you tell us and trust us with your plan?  Why did you keep it a secret?  Together, we would have killed the entire team of these bastards.  We would not have left one of them alive.  And so, it’s your fault we are in this position, we could have gotten rid of them all.”  They were his last words to Khaliq before he was hanged. 
Khaliq saw his only regret was that he did not confide in anyone else.  He said, “Yes, he was right.  My precautions were all meaningless.  I was consumed with the need to rid us of Nadir Khan that I did not consider his marauders would be so unjust. Please forgive me.”  Khaliq’s body was cut into many pieces, slowly and one by one, he was shown his severed body parts before they were tossed away.  There was nothing left of him to hang.
      Khaliq and his friends and family will always be remembered by the people of Afghanistan for their courage and the elimination of such an evil and corrupted man.  They lost their lives, had sacrificed their lives for the Hazaras, Tajiks, and other people.  These were the brave people of our nation, standing up to face tyranny in the face.
      One should ask, because of Khaliq’s actions, why did others have to be killed?  Why did the barbarians murder Khaliq’s father, his uncle, his mother’s brother, his 9 and 11 year old cousins, his classmates, teachers, and various other people?  Why did other have to be locked up in prisons for something they obviously had no part in?  Years later, the skulls of those people were found in the jail cells.  What kind of mentality did these barbarians have?  How could any civilized person think this was right?  Human beings are not capable of this kind of cruelty, only the tribal mentality would lead someone to punish innocent people so severely.  This is beyond the cruelty of Changiz Khan, who has one of the worst reputations of being brutal.  Even Changiz did not kill his own Mongolians so how could Nadir Khan and his inhumane clan members kill their own countrymen?  The soulless yes-men of Nadir Khan did everything for money or perhaps out of fear; they wrote books and articles insulting and badmouthing Khaliq.  They have eliminated every single member of Khaliq’s family until there is no trace of his bloodline left.  They were able to murder innocent people and children and yet they are the ones condemning one single act of Khaliq’s.
      Before the hero Khaliq pulled the trigger, he had surrounded himself to God.  He said, “Almighty God, I am doing this to save my people from this tyrannical dictator.  I will sacrifice my life so that my people can have a chance of a better future.  You are the only Witness I need.  With my blood, I seek peace for my nation.  And so, I am asking you to forgive me.”  And then he pulled the trigger.

That trigger pushed Afghanistan into the next chapter of its dark history as Nadir Khan’s brother and son rose to power like a multi-headed beast.  But for that one second before the bullet escaped the chamber, there was a glimmer of hope that perhaps Abdul Khaliq would not die in vain.

1.      Essays About Lands and Dignitaries of Hazarajat by Hussein Naheel, spring 2000, Published in Iran.
2.      Afghanistan in the Past 5 Centuries by Mir Mohammed Seddiq Farhang, First Edition, Part Two. Published in Iran 1992.
3.      Voice of Hazaraistan Publication 11th Edition, 3rd year. February 1999.
4.      Hazara narratives
5. Farsi article of “Remembrance of the Struggles of Abdul Khaliq the Martyred Hero” by G. Fazli  from the website 73
 Credit: This article has been taken from 

What makes Othello a tragic hero?

Othello befits as a tragic hero in Shakespeare’s play; Othello. Firstly, he holds an important role – and is nobly born. He is well respected and admired by all. Secondly, through a ‘fatal flaw’ and the devious plans of Iago directed towards him, he suffers a dramatic fall from grace. Hence, he loses his wife, his status, his dignity and position, and the respect held by others of him. Finally, he comes to know that Iago was the mastermind behind his tragic downfall and his blind trust on Iago caused all his miseries. Unfortunately, by the time he discovers the truth he has already murdered Desdemona and he himself commits a suicide out of regret. Othello himself is the architect of his tragic downfall. His life is ruined by jealousy and excessive pride.

Othello is a general in the Venetian army. He is respected and honoured by the Venetians for his achievements in the battlefield. He is considered an honest and noble general. He is fearless and a trustworthy general. He is referred to as “Valiant Othello” and “The brave Moor” by the Duke and the Senator of Venice. He is appointed, by the mutual consent of the senators, the new governor of Cyprus. He is a tactful and a wise man. When Brabantio attempts to arrest him and swords are drawn on both sides, Othello prevents a possible brawl and says “Keep up your bright sword, for the dew will rust them” and suggests Brabantio resolve the issue peacefully. He is also proud of his achievements and services that he has done for the state. He is confident that “his services shall out-tongue” Brabantio’s complaints against him. He is respected and held in high esteem by everyone. Even Iago, who hates him and conspires against him throughout the play describes him as “a constant, loving noble nature”. Othello is also an eloquent speaker which he nevertheless denies “Rude am I in my speech”. Othello is reputed to be a courageous and a truthful man.

Despite possessing all these noble characteristics, Othello has a ‘tragic flaw’ of jealousy. Jealousy is a trait of his personality that appears to undo Othello. Iago creates the chain of events that sparks jealousy in Othello, and eventually leads to his dreadful downfall. In Othello, Shakespeare describes the tragic decline of a man who, in a fit of jealous rage, ruins what he loves best. The marriage between Othello and Desdemona is a true love based on a mutual knowledge and valuing of each other’s worth. The love of Othello and Desdemona overcomes the barriers of colour, race and age. As soon as jealousy enters into the mind of Othello, his marriage is destroyed. His naivety and gullibility also proves to be costly for him and pave the way for his downfall. Iago cunningly exploits Othello’s naivety and sets him down the spiral of jealousy. In Act 3, Scene 3, Iago convinces Othello easily that Desdemona has deceived him as she had not hesitated to hoodwink her own father with deceit “She did deceive her father, marrying you”. Othello blindly accepts the false accusations and even feels indebted to Iago for his friendship and honesty “I’m indebted to you forever.” Othello does not attempt to approach Cassio to confirm his doubt and does not give Desdemona a chance to prove her chastity.

Othello’s excessive pride is another of his shortcomings. His sinful pride makes him a vulnerable character to be manipulated by Iago. If he had not been so proud, he might have talked to Desdemona about her affair with Cassio and resolved the issue. He is so proud that he thinks everyone is submissive and loyal to him. He believes that a man with a damaged pride is no longer a man but a monster. Desdemona has made him a monster by cheating on him “A horned man is a monster and a beast.” He lets the pride get the best of him, and this influences his judgment to a degree that he actually ends up murdering Desdemona.

Like other tragic heroes, Othello also eventually realizes that the misfortune that befell him was caused by his own jealousy and sinful pride.  He discovers that he was wrong in believing everything Iago said and regrets the way he was compelled to act. He discovers the true story about the handkerchief and perceives Iago’s lies. He heard the truth from Desdemona but did not trust her. Unfortunately by the time he realizes the truth, he has already murdered Desdemona. He regrets his actions and attempts to alleviate others’ anger towards him by claiming that he was not jealous but ‘wrought’ and “Perplexed in the extreme”.  Finally, he commits suicide as he cannot live with the fact that he has murdered his loyal wife.

In conclusion, Othello’s rise to prominence and his tragic downfall are caused by no one but himself. He wins the hearts of every Venetians through his bravery, honesty and noble character and in return he is rewarded with the post of an army general. Similarly, he himself is the architect of his downfall. His jealousy and sinful pride set him on the spiral of miseries and misfortunes. It is in his own hands that his fate rests. He suffers a miserable downfall and is made a tragic hero by his jealousy and excessive pride.

Othello is more about jealousy than uncontrolled anger.


In Othello, jealousy and anger are the two major emotions that control the play. In the play jealousy is evident in the words and actions of Iago and Othello in particular. There is also an element of pride that influences some of the characters of the play to behave or act in a certain way. Brabantio’s pride is hurt by Desdemona’s decision to marry an African man. Othello’s pride is wounded by his belief that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio. But the emotion that shapes and controls the entire play is neither jealousy nor pride but an intense and uncontrolled anger. Anger is the driving force behind the cunning plans of Iago, the murders of Roderigo, Desdemona and Emilia and the suicide of Othello.
The uncontrolled anger of Othello led to him murdering his wife Desdemona. At the start of the play, he is a very calm, patient and rational person. But he fell a prey to Iago’s manipulation believed blindly that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio. In Act I, Scene II, when Brabantio confronts Othello and blames him for stealing his daughter from him, he humbly asks Brabantio how he can prove his charges wrong “Where will you that I go / To answer this your charge?” He is a proud man. He takes pride in his achievement and services that he has done to the Venetians. When Iago suggests that Othello run away since Brabantio is coming for him and plans to prosecute him, he says to Iago, “My services, which I have done the signory/ Shall out-tongue his complaints”, indicating that he is confident of proving the charges of Brabantio on the basis of him services to the Venetians. It takes Iago much effort to manipulate Othello and convince him of Desdemona and Cassio’s affair. Othello asks Iago for an “ocular proof” that Desdemona is cheating on him. He is furious when Iago allows him to see the handkerchief which he gave to Desdemona when he first met her. Enraged by the proof, he starts believing everything that Iago says. He is no more a patient, rational and soft-spoken general but an angry, blood thirsty beast. Once Desdemona was his soul’s joy but now he intends to kill her: “I will chop her into messes!”

Iago, who cunningly plans the downfall of Othello and other characters, is also driven by anger. Iago’s hatred for Othello is due to the fact that he was denied a promotion to lieutenancy by Othello. Michael Cassio is appointed lieutenant in his stead, whom Iago considers an outsider and an inexperienced and incompetent officer “mere prattle without practice”. In addition to this, Iago suspects that Othello and his wife Emilia have had an affair; in a soliloquy at the end of act I, scene III he reveals possibly the true nature of his hatred for Othello: “I hate the Moor; And it is thought abroad that ‘twixt my sheets He has done my office”. Iago is a proud Venetian. He calls Cassio a “Florentine” and Othello a “Moor”. He hates the fact that an African man, Othello, is honoured and respected in the Venetian society. His hatred for Othello leads to a jealousy in him. He cannot stand to see the qualities of a noble man in the Moor and a beautiful Venetian girl, whom he also loves, as the wife of the Moor “The Moor – howbeit that I endure him not / Is of constant, loving, noble nature”. He takes out his anger by devising cunning plans against Othello and Cassio. Most of his evil plots are not pre-planned but he just does whatever it takes to hurt others. Maddened by his rage, he never thinks of the catastrophic consequences of his wicked plans; the deaths of Emilia and Desdemona were not the initial goal of his plan. Although, his anger is raging and intense, he has control over himself. He cunningly twists his words and sympathizes with the tragedy of every character. He wins the trust of everyone and gets the name of “Honest Iago”. Everyone seeks Iago’s advice in difficult times. Towards the end of the play, Othello depends heavily upon Iago’s words and declares him a wise man “O, thou art wise, ‘tis certain”. Despite the fact that Iago is respected and honoured by other characters as a wise and an honest man, Iago’s anger is not quelled but intensifies as the play goes on. He chose wickedness to make others suffer and pacify his anger.
In the course of the play, other characters exhibit anger in their actions. Roderigo, a long-time suitor of Desdemona, is angry as Desdemona chooses to marry Othello instead of him. Unlike Iago and Othello, Roderigo does not intend to take out his anger on others or hurt them. His only goal is to win Desdemona’s heart and he will go to any extent to achieve that. Towards the end of the play he is furious with Iago when he finds out that all the gifts that he has sent to Desdemona through Iago have not reached her. He finds out that Iago has been keeping all the money and gifts and did not do what he promised to do “You have told me she hath received them / But I find none.” Roderigo is also the first character in the play to realize that Iago does not keep his word and he is not to be trusted “Your words and performances are no kin together.” Desdemona’s decision to marry Othello also causes anger in Brabantio. He is enraged as his daughter has married a black man without his consent. He blames Othello for using sorcery to steal his daughter from him. Previously, she was so opposed to marriage that she even rejected “The wealthy” and “curled darlings” of Venice. He unsuccessfully attempts to break the relationship of Othello and Desdemona in court and to put Othello in jail for his “theft”. He cannot overcome his rage over his daughter’s marriage to the Moor and succumbs to his anger. Emilia is Desdemona’s devoted handmaiden and is maddened with anger when Othello confronts her with his misguided convictions concerning Desdemona’s chastity. However, to please her husband, she steals the handkerchief of her beloved Desdemona, and this leads to the completion of Iago’s cunning and monstrous plans. She resents Othello and even wishes that Desdemona “had never seen him”. She is also the first character to suspect that “some cogging, cozening slave” has manipulated Othello and “devised this slander” to get “some office”. In short, not only Othello or Iago are driven by their anger but other character’s actions are also influenced by anger.

However, in Othello, there are characters who do not surrender to their anger. Bianca is Cassio’s mistress. She is not happy with Cassio when he gives her a handkerchief to copy. She suspects that Cassio is having an affair with someone else and the handkerchief is a “token from a newer friend”. Unlike Othello, she does not lose her mind but she acts rationally and even invites Cassio to her house for a dinner. She is the sole character of the play who confronts Iago and does not seek his advice. Even if she had found herself in a tight situation, she would not ask Iago for his help or advice. Her mature and rational approach would have been an obstacle for Iago to influence her. She resolutely denies the charges of murder against her. She explains that she and Cassio had a dinner together at her house earlier that night. Desdemona does not display any sign of anger or jealousy throughout the entire play. She is a kind hearted, loving and innocent woman. She truly loves Othello. Even when Othello does not treat her well, she is not disappointed but worried about what ails her “lord”. At the end of the play, while lying on her death bed, she tries to neutralise any legal ramifications for Othello following her death by taking blame for her own murder “Nobody – I myself – farewell”. Arguably, Desdemona and Bianca are two of the few characters of the play who are not prompted by their anger to take any inappropriate decisions.

Apart from Desdemona and Bianca, almost all other characters’ thoughts and actions are influenced by anger. Iago’s anger at being passed over, arouses jealousy in him and makes him plot his evil plans against others. Brabantio cannot overcome his anger and disappointment with Desdemona and is eventually killed by it. Othello’s thoughts and decisions are dominated by anger. He turns from a noble and honourable army general to a murderer. Iago was propelled by his anger to plan his deceitful plans against others and arouses anger in them. The anger in other characters results into the tragedy of the play.


Smoking is a deadly addiction which puts the smokers’ lives at risk as well as the lives of passive smokers, particularly the family members. Why would anybody choose to take up this disgusting and costly habit?

When asked, smokers come up with some lame excuses as to why they smoke. Some would say that they use smoke as a support when things go wrong and others would defend their addiction by saying that they smoke when they feel bored and lonely. A nice way to kill your boredom!

Cigarettes contain Nicotine and it is proven that Nicotine is more addictive than heroin. Hence, once a smoker, always a smoker. Addicted smokers need enough nicotine over a day to ‘feel normal’ – to satisfy cravings or in other words, control their mood

There are as many as 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke that are chemically active and can potentially trigger fatal changes in the body. Moreover, Tobacco smoke contains over 60 known cancer-causing chemicals. Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general.

Smokers are 32 per cent more likely than non-smokers to end up in hospital.  Children in smokers’ households are four times more likely to be admitted to hospital with respiratory illness.

Smoking raises blood pressure, hence smokers are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke. They are more likely to get cancer than non-smokers. This is particularly true of lung cancer, throat cancer and mouth cancer, which hardly ever affect non-smokers. One in ten moderate smokers and almost one in five heavy smokers (more than 15 cigarettes a day) will die of lung cancer.

Smoking stains your teeth and gums. It causes an acid taste in the mouth and contributes to the development of ulcers. Smoking also affects your looks: smokers have paler skin and more wrinkles. This is because smoking reduces the blood supply to the skin and lowers levels of vitamin A. Who would want to look like this?

Smoking-related diseases kill more than 15,000 Australians every year. After every 28 minutes, one Australian dies of a smoking-related disease, adding up to more than 50 deaths per day. We could save 50 Australians every day.  If a fraction of these deaths were caused by infectious disease, terrorism, road trauma or any other factor then the government would surely take extreme action to save lives.

One might argue that the revenue that the government collects from Cigarette taxes prevents the government from taking any action against smoking. This argument is totally irrelevant and baseless. The Australian Government collects about A$10 billion from Cigarette taxes and spends more than A$32 billion on smoking-related diseases every year. In addition to this, 75,000 beds in hospitals are occupied by smoking patients every year.

What would be the advantages of giving up smoking? If any smoker does not smoke only for one month then he would save up to $490. His lungs well be working more efficiently. Exercising will be easier for him and his immune system starts to recover.

Please consider the evidence before taking up smoking. This is an addiction that kills at least 15,000 Australians every year. The consequences of taking up this addiction can be disastrous for you and for your loved ones.

“The law is a guarantee that the rights of individuals will be protected.”


Does always the law protect the rights of individuals?

Law can be defined as the set of rules and regulations which are enforced by the government to punish criminals, solve disputes between individuals and govern behaviours of individuals in the society. The history of law is as old as civilization.  Law was practised by the ancient Egyptian civilization as early as 3000 BC. Often there was a king or an emperor who would govern their kingdom or empire according to their own set of laws. For example, in olden days if someone stole something or killed someone, he would be fined or even sentenced to death.

In some parts of the world, the law (when implemented fairly) has protected the rights of individuals. After the WWII, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in the UN general assembly. The citizens of the countries that adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in full or part enjoyed full protection of their rights in contrast to the citizens of other countries without the law. The violation rate of human rights in Europe reduced to a great extent after the implementation of law. Similar results were achieved in North America, Japan and some other countries. Implementation of the law protected the rights of individuals in these countries and no one bothered to go out and fight for his/her rights. However, lawlessness in countries like Afghanistan, Ethiopia and some other conflicted countries of the world produced catastrophic consequences. Many rights are not given to citizens of these countries but taken away. It would not be an exaggeration to say in a country like Afghanistan lawlessness is one of the major reasons for terrorism, corruption and the loss of thousands of human lives.

Unfortunately, law cannot guarantee the rights of individuals all the time. There have been many occasions in history that discriminatory laws were enforced against a particular group of people to legalise their persecution.

For example, in the 18th century institutionalised racism was practised against the black population of America. Various discriminatory laws were devised to deny the Black populations their basic rights. They were forced into slavery. Most of the court’s decisions against blacks encouraged the whites to continue their oppression and maltreatment of the black population. Violence against blacks and riots broke out in the country. No one was held accountable for their inhumane behaviour and treatment of the blacks.

Similarly, the Nazi regime used several discriminatory laws to justify the genocide of Jews in Germany. Jews were asked to pay a heavy amount of money in order to escape the miseries and sufferings of the forthcoming laws. Only a few wealthy Jews could afford to pay the money and leave Germany, but most of them stayed in Germany to endure the brutality of the Nazi regime. Jews were blamed for the defeat of Germany in World War One. Hitler introduced a new law in which Jews were declared “Untermenschen” – The Sub Humans. Jews lost their German citizenship under the new law and the marriage between Jews and Germans were prohibited. It was illegal for Germans to shop at Jewish-owned shops. On buses, parks and trains Jews were allocated specific seats. Even a night curfew was imposed on Jews.

After introducing several harsh discriminatory laws against Jews, Hitler implemented his final solution. When Nazis captured Hungary in 1944, they started the deportation of Jews of Sighet. First, the Jews were forced into small ghettos, and after two days were packed in trains and deported to Birkenau. In Birkenau families were separated, men and boys on one side, and women and girls on the other. Wiesel (who survived the holocaust and wrote the book “Night”) and his father were separated from his mother and sister and they never saw each other again. Jewish men and boys were then divided into two groups; those who were fit to work and those who were good for nothing but the fuel of the furnace. Wiesel and his father were taken to one of the work camps of Auschwitz: Buna. Even whilst they were fed inadequately, the Jewish prisoners were required to work harder normal. Some Jews lost their lives in the Birkenau furnaces, others perished in the freezing cold, and still more in the work camps. After a period of harsh treatment and intense labour, Wiesel’s father died of dysentery. Very few Jews (Wiesel was among them) survived the harsh and painful treatment of the Nazis and were liberated by the American army in 1945.

In summary, if the law is implemented fairly and equally, it can protect the rights of individuals. Murders, robberies, terrorism and other crimes can be prevented, and citizens can live peaceful and happy lives. Europe, North America and Japan are some of the examples of when law protects the rights of the individuals. On the other hand, if the law is twisted and used to justify the persecution of minorities, it cannot protect the rights of individuals. The treatment of Jews in Germany and Blacks in America are two unfortunate cases when law could not protect the rights of individuals.

Uranium extraction in Australia

Uranium Mining?

Uranium Mining?

Uranium is a grey radioactive metal which is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors to generate electricity. Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, a German chemist, and it was named after the planet Uranus. Uranium is one of the rare elements found in the earth’s crust and makes only 0.00018% of Earth’s crust. Uranium is also found in seawater, and can be extracted from the oceans. Like other elements, uranium can vary in different forms which are known as “Isotopes”.
It is estimated that about 31% of the total uranium of the world is found in Australia. Uranium mining started in 1954 in Australia. Three different methods are adopted to mine uranium. Uranium is extracted at Beverley and Honeymoon mines using the In-situ Recovery (ISR) method, while Under-Ground and Open-Pit mining are adopted at Olympic dam and Ranger mine respectively.
Uranium sites have been discovered in WA, SA, NT and QLD. At present only four uranium mines are operating. Olympic Dam, Beverly & Honeymoon mines are located in South Australia and the Ranger mine in Northern Territory.
Unlike the other countries of the world, Australia does not use uranium to generate nuclear energy nor are they planning to do in near future. Australia uses uranium in research and to make special medicines for the treatment of cancer. Uranium is also used in the production of different electronics devices.
Australia earns approximately $1070m by exporting 6950 tons of Uranium Oxide annually. There are about 4200 workers working in uranium mines. In addition to this, the Commonwealth also generate revenue by collecting tax from uranium mining companies.
Anti-Uranium mining groups argue that Australia does not earn enough money from mining companies and the negative impact on the environment does not justify the revenue raised from the mining. The workers and local populations are exposed to several fatal diseases such as Leukaemia, lung and stomach cancer, kidney diseases and birth defects in infants. In the Northern Territory, local aboriginal communities have been affected with many of these diseases.
Uranium is not an adequate source to generate power. It provides only 2% of world’s primary energy. Power generation from nuclear reactors is an unnecessary risk taken by many countries of the world and Australia provides them the fuel to do so. In 2011, Fukushima Nuclear reactor disaster affected at least 160,000 people, forcing them to abandon their houses and with many losing their lives in this tragedy. Uranium is also used to make the Atom bomb that can kill thousands of innocent masses in a blink of an eye.
On the other hand, pro-uranium mining groups argue that uranium mining is not as dangerous as the environmentalists propagate. It is an efficient source of generating clean energy and helps reduce the greenhouse gases from atmosphere. Uranium is also used to manufacture medicines and other electronic devices. They also argue that uranium mining helps Australian economy. Australia exports $1070m uranium annually. The Commonwealth also generates money by collecting taxes from uranium companies. Furthermore, Uranium mining companies employ about 4200 workers in remote areas of Australia where jobs are very scarce. Moreover, Australia exports uranium only to those countries that are committed to the peaceful usages of uranium.
The Australian government and uranium mining companies always campaign for uranium mining. They spend lots of money in order to convince the people that uranium mining is safe and beneficial for Australia. On the other hand, environmentalists and some organizations, such as Friends of the Earth and others, have consistently campaigned against uranium mining for quite a long time. Means in which they have demonstrated their protest is through rallies and seminars where they try to convince the Australian public that uranium mining is neither safe nor beneficial for either Australia or the rest of the world.
I believe Australia should not mine and export uranium. First of all, the profits raised from uranium mining is does not justify the environmental and health hazards that this mining can cause. It can cause lots of fatal diseases such leukaemia, cancer and many other diseases. Uranium mining uses lots of water and then the contaminated water is dumped into rivers, lakes or underground. Uranium maybe used to make atom bomb that can kill thousands of people. In addition to this, any technical fault in nuclear reactor can result into a catastrophic incident.


Hallett Cove

Sugar Loaf at Hallett Cove

Sugar Loaf at Hallett Cove

It is believed that Australia was part of Gondwana supercontinent about 280 million years ago. Gondwana was covered by an icecap and it was moving towards the South Pole. 280m years ago (Permian times), ice caps covered approximately two-thirds of the southern region of the Australian continent. This icecap was at least 1 kilometre thick. The icecap was moving in a north-westerly direction over Australia. Striations left behind from the movement of the icecap can be seen at Hallett Cove.
Boulders found on the beach at Hallett Cove date back to 270m years go. These boulders contain fine rock flour and coarser materials that formed boulders when accumulating on the bottom of lakes within the giant ice-caps. As these giant ice-caps melted away the boulders were left scattered.
About 43m years ago, Australia separated from Gondwana supercontinent. As the climate got warmer and ice melted, water levels in Gulf St Vincent rose and caused water erosion in the Mt Lofty Ranges.
Sandstones seen at Hallett Cove are shell shaped, these are actually fossilised remains of seashells that use to inhabit the sandy shallow sea bed.
Another important geological change occurred about ½ million years ago. Layers of limestone were developed in the surface soils around the amphitheatre.
The Hallet Cover area has experienced inconsistent weather patterns since its formation 270m years ago. These alternating weather patterns have helped shape the Cove to its current day state.
Fossils of extinct megafauna, such as Diprotodon and giant kangaroo, have been found near the Filed River inland from the Hallett Cove beach which date back 100,000 years. It is also believed that the Amphitheatre got its present shape due to erosion around this time. These processes are still evident today, as the Hallett Cove region and the Mount Lofty Ranges are still being uplifted, resulting in erosion and sedimentation.
Hallett Cove is an outstanding geological and archaeological site that contains history dating back to 280 million years ago during the ice age. Site folded siltstone, sandstones and quartzites of the Delamerian Highlands can be located within the cliffs at Black Cliff and on the shore platform to the north. Hallet Cove is also home to more than 17,000 Aboriginal artefacts. The best record the Permian glaciation during the Australian ice age can be seen through the glacial pavements along the northern cliff tops.Striations left on the rocks at the Hallett Cove tell the tale of supercontinent Gondwana, megafauna, glaciers that covered the earth and ancient tribes that roamed the land at that time. These factors have resulted in Hallett Cove being regarded as a unique geological and archaeological site, nationally and internationally. This site is used recreationally, educationally and scientifically by various members of the community.

Review: Sadako and The Thousand Paper Cranes (Elener Coerr)


It is a biography book about the life of a young Japanese girl who was affected by nuclear radiation in the Japanese city of Hiroshimain 1945. She died of Leukaemia (disease caused by Nuclear Weapon). It is a true story of young girl who suffered from war like thousands of other innocent people who do not have anything to do with the war. In this book there is a message of peace and the sense of never giving up for everyone. This book is about the destruction and thunderbolt that nuclear weapon can cause. The writer says that it can affect thousands of innocent people like Sadako who have nothing to do with the war.

Sadako has dark hair with highlights from the sun. She is tall with long legs. She is quite impatient girl. She likes festivals, people, gathering and music. She was born to be a runner. Once her mother said about her, “She learned to run before she could walk.” She was the second children of Sasaki family. She had two brothers and one sister. She always thinks of her family. She does not want worry her family when she feels sick. She wishes to be with her family all the time. She cares about nothing but her family and getting into the racing team of junior high school. She likes to go everywhere. She is hard worker and practices running every day. She wishes to get into the racing team of junior high school next year. She cared about nothing but her family and getting into the racing team of junior high school. She is optimistic. Although, she is diagnosed with Leukaemia but again she hopes to recover soon and prays to get healthy. She works hard to fold 1000 paper cranes to get a wish. She is brave until the end.

Chizuko is Sadako’s best friend. She wishes Sadako to recover soon. She even find a remedy for Sadako’s illness. She brings a pair of scissors and papers for Sadako and teaches her how to fold paper cranes. She tells Sadako that if she folds 1000 paper cranes then she will get a wish no matter what so ever her wish is and thus she might recover from Leukaemia. Sadako had loving parents; Mr. and Mrs. Sasaki. They had a barber shop and were not that rich. Her older brother Massahiro, was quite helpful for her. He offered his help to hang 1000 paper cranes for her. Her sister Mitsu 9, used to help her in household chores and tried to make her happy. She had a younger brother Eiji 6, whom she always used to help to get ready for school. When she was hospitalized, Eiji used to bring paper for her to fold them into paper cranes.

The story starts with celebration of PEACE DAY. Sadako, her family and her friend Chizuko attend the Peace Day ceremony in the memorial of those whom they lost in a deadly atomic bomb attack by U.S in Hiroshima city of Japan in 1945. She was quite excited to attend the ceremony as she will find lots of people there and she will be able to eat her favourite food there. After some days, there was going to be a race on the Big Friday. Since Sadako was a passionate runner so she was eager to join the race. She was born to be a runner. She entered the race and emerged as a winner. She then focused on her preparation to break into the racing team of junior high school next year. But soon she found that while running,

she was feeling a bit dizzy and unwell. At first, she did not take it serious. But one day, when she was running in her school she fell down quite awkwardly; on trying to get up she again fell. She was then taken to hospital and to her great surprise she was found to be suffering from Leukaemia. At first she could not believe her eyes that she was down with Leukaemia. She was very disappointed when she learned that she had to stay in hospital for a long time. Thus, she was going to miss the chance to get into the racing team of junior high school. She was angry with herself as she thought that she was worrying her family with her illness. It was hard time as she never had been so lonely in her entire life.

Sadako had a very good and caring friend, Chizuko. Chizuko was quite worried about the illness of her friend. She even found a way to help Sadako recover from Leukaemia. One day when Sadako was in hospital, she brought papers and pair of scissors for her. She taught her how to fold paper cranes. She told Sadako that if she manages to fold 1000 paper cranes she would get a wish no matter whatsoever her wish might be. Thus she might recover from her illness. Sadako then started folding paper cranes. Her brother hung the paper cranes to the ceiling to her. Her family, class mates and even the nurse were collecting paper for her to fold them into paper cranes. But Sadako was not doing quite well. Day by day her condition was worsening but she never gave up. She was encouraging even a fellow patient, a young boy named Kenji not to lose hope. She always tried to show as if she is happy and healthy whenever her family paid her a visit as she did not want to worry them. In midway to 1000, she started feeling well. It seemed as if the paper cranes have started showing their magic. She recovered so much that the doctor allowed her to go back to her home. She was delighted and she started thinking about the junior high school’s racing team. Alas! She could stay only for one week at home before she was hospitalized once again. She passed that one week mostly in receiving the guests and visitors who had come to ask about her healthy. She did pass a good, happy week with her family. This time she was getting weaker and weaker rapidly. She could not eat anymore. Even she could not fold paper cranes anymore. She was lying in her bed all the time. Her mother made a very beautiful   dress (KIMONO) for her but she could hardly wear the cloth and walk in the room. Now and then she was wondering how it feels to die. Will she be living a good life after death? One day her family came to pay her a visit. While they were talking with each other, Sadako fell asleep.
And she never woke up.

Sadako’s story is a message of peace for the world. She was a courageous and hardworking girl. Though she was diagnosed with Leukaemia but she did not give up hope to make into the racing team of the junior high school. She had love for everyone in her heart. She used to enjoy her time in the company of her family and friends. She was a caring girl. She did not want to worry her family due to her illness. She always wanted to see them happy and cheerful.

Since her childhood, Elener Coerr was interested in Japan. She always wanted to visit Japan one day. 1949, She visited Japan. During her stay, she heard many stories about Sadako’s

running ability, courage and her tragic death caused by Leukaemia (Atomic bomb radiation). She was so much inspired by the story of young girl Sadako that she decided to write a book about her life. She tries to convey the message of peace to the people of the world while narrating Sadako’s story.

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes is a peaceful struggle to convince the people of the world to give up fighting. The writer wishes the earth to be a peaceful place to live for everyone. She beautifully describes about Sadako’s life. She covers the life of Sadako as well as the horrible consequences of war. Through Sadako’s courage, determination and the sense of never giving up she wants to teach to all her readers these lessons. Everyone shall find it interesting. It is full of pathos, hope and courage. She represents Sadako’s life completely; her passion to win the race, her love for her family and friends and even her favourite food.

I believe every one once should read this book in their life. At the end of the book they might be able to understand how harmful and devastating the war can be for human races.
They might start feeling some pain in their heart for fellow human being who is suffering from war in different part of the world. This is a great book by Elener Coerr and it does deserve to be perused at least once by the lovers of peace and fellow human being.

Should students wear school uniform? Essay sample

Should students have to wear school uniforms?

There is a keenly debated discussion within Australian schools over whether or not students should have to wear school uniforms. I believe that students should wear uniforms. In my opinion school uniforms can help reduce bullying rates in schools. I also believe that they can bring a sense of equality between students. Given that school uniforms are cost-effective, I see no reason why all school students should not be wearing school uniforms.

School uniforms can reduce bullying rates in schools. Bullying is a particularly significant issue in Australian schools, partly because of the cultural diversity among Australian students. All these cultural groups have values and beliefs that are unique to one another. Often, students tease and bully one another because of their cultural differences. Bullying will often result in students experiencing depression, anger and giving rise to skirmishes and quarrels. I think that wearing uniforms will help students see one another as individuals and mates, and not judge one another based simply on their culture. Hence school uniforms can help prevent culture-based bullying in our schools.

Uniforms can also foster a sense of equality between students. Some students to a well-to-do families are more privileged than others. Choice of clothing for the handicapped students is a big issue as fashion is used by many students as a key status-symbol. Through their fashion they try to be seen as equals to other students. I firmly believe that if all students wear uniforms, social status would no longer be an issue for poorer students. Furthermore, uniforms will enable all students to focus on their studies.

School uniforms are also cost-effective. All students can afford school uniforms. Students who do not wear uniforms have to wear different clothes at least twice a week. This can be a very exorbitant way of dressing for school. On the other hand, students who wear school uniforms have to purchase uniforms only once in a year. They can wear this uniform every day of the year.

In conclusion, I believe that there are many benefits to wearing school uniform. A uniform is affordable, it reduces bullying rates in schools and it fosters a sense of equality in schools. For these reasons I believe that all students should wear uniforms.

Lines from Count of Monte Cristo

Book: Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas
The Book Count of Monte Cristo is indeed a great classic. You find hope, right and wrong, suffering, revenge, relations and suspense in this book. There are some lines that you can not live without sharing them with others. I am also going to share some lines here.

“Life is a storm, my young friend. You will bask in the sunlight one moment, be shattered on the rocks the next. What makes you a man is what you do when that storm comes. You must look into that storm and shout as you did in Rome. Do your worst, for I will do mine! Then the fates will know you as we know you.”
“There is neither happiness nor misery in the world; there is only the comparison of one state with another, nothing more. He who has felt the deepest grief is best able to experience supreme happiness. We must of felt what it is to die, Morrel, that we may appreciate the enjoyments of life.“Live, then, and be happy, beloved children of my heart, and never forget, that until the day God will deign to reveal the future to man, all human wisdom is contained in these two words, ‘Wait and Hope.”“The friends we have lost do not repose under the ground…they are buried deep in our hearts. It has been thus ordained that they may always accompany us.”

“Misfortune is needed to plumb certain mysterious depths in the understanding of men; pressure is needed to explode the charge. My captivity concentrated all my faculties on a single point. They had previously been dispersed, now they clashed in a narrow space; and, as you know, the clash of clouds produces electricity, electricity produces lightning and lightning gives light.”“Ah, lips that say one thing, while the heart thinks another.”“Perhaps what I am about to say may seem strange to you, who are socialists, and vaunt humanity and your duty to your neighbor, but I never seek to protect a society which does not protect me, and which I will even say, generally occupies itself about me only to injure me; and thus by giving them a low place in my esteem, and preserving a neutrality towards them, it is society and my neighbor who are indebted to me.”

“… for in prosperity prayers seem but a mere medley of words, until misfortune comes and the unhappy sufferer first understands the meaning of the sublime language in which he invokes the pity of heaven!”

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